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Orang dulu sebelum mengenal kata gizi, masih sehat-sehat saja! Mereka masih bisa hidup sewajarnya. Lantas setelah timbul kata gizi, seolah-olah hal tersebut sangat dipermasalahkan. Mengapa demikian? Seberapa penting gizi itu?

 
Pentingnya gizi ada dalam Undang-Undang nomor 36 tahun 2009 tentang Kesehatan, Bab VIII mengamanatkan bahwa Upaya Perbaikan Gizi bertujuan untuk meningkatkan mutu gizi perseorangan dan masyarakat antara lain melalui perbaikan pola konsumsi makanan, perbaikan perilaku sadar gizi, peningkatan akses serta mutu pelayanan gizi dan kesehatan sesuai dengan kemajuan ilmu dan teknologi.
 
Dampak jangka pendek gizi buruk terhadap perkembangan anak menurut Nency & Arifin (2005), diantaranya menjadikan anak apatis, gangguan bicara dan gangguan perkembangan yang lain. Sedangkan dampak jangka panjang adalah penurunan skor Intelligence Quotient (IQ), penurunan perkembangan kognitif, penurunan integrasi sensori, gangguan pemusatan perhatian, gangguan penurunan rasa percaya diri dan tentu saja merosotnya prestasi akademik di sekolah. Kurang gizi berpotensi menjadi penyebab kemiskinan melalui rendahnya kualitas sumber daya manusia dan produktivitas.

Tidak heran jika gizi buruk yang tidak dikelola dengan baik, pada fase akutnya akan mengancam jiwa dan pada jangka panjang akan menjadi ancaman hilangnya sebuah generasi penerus bangsa.
 
Lantas, sudah terpenuhi-kah gizi anda, dan anak anda hari ini? Sudah cukup-kah asupan gizi anda, dan anak anda hari ini? Terkadang sedikit sulit bagi orang awam untuk menjawab pertanyaan di atas. Apalagi benar-benar mengukurnya (mengukur kebutuhan dan kadar gizi). Sebenarnya bagi mereka yang masih bingung dengan yang namanya gizi, pertanyaan di atas hanyalah bualan saja. Tak cukup penting! Yang paling penting itu perut kenyang, badan sehat, serta masih bisa beraktivitas normal.
Baiklah, sebelum kita membahas lebih dalam mengenai gizi. Ada baiknya kita mengetahui terlebih dulu pengertian secara harfiahnya. Gizi sebenarnya berasal dari kata serapan bahasa arab gizzah yang mempunyai arti makanan sehat. Gizi adalah kumpulan zat penting yang terdapat pada makanan berupa protein, mineral, vitamin, karbohidrat, lemak, dan juga air. Zat-zat tersebut sangat dibutuhkan oleh tubuh untuk mendukung aktivitas sehari-hari.
 

Lantas bagaimana sejarah perjalanan pengenalan gizi di Indonesia?

Berikut infografik perjalanan pengenalan gizi di Indonesia:

 
Mengapa setelah mengenal kata gizi, hal tersebut menjadi sangat penting? Mengapa pada zaman sekarang gizi salah satu aspek yang perlu diperhatikan?
 
Gizi hadir karena salah satu bentuk kemajuan zaman dalam dunia kesehatan agar bisa mengontrol kesehatan. Tapi, mengapa orang-orang zaman dahulu sebelum mengenal gizi, mereka masih bisa hidup normal? Ya, kebanyakan orang-orang dahulu mengonsumsi makan-makanan yang masih alami berasal dari alam, dan diolah seadanya tanpa mengurangi zat yang terkandung di dalamnya. Pada makanan yang mereka makan pun belum ada zat-zat kimia yang membahayakan tubuh (bahaya baik dalam jangka pendek ataupun jangka panjang), seperti zat pengawet, pewarna buatan, pemanis buatan, penyedap rasa, dan sejenisnya.
 
Persoalan gizi juga menjadi perhatian pada zaman modern sekarang ini karena semakin banyaknya makanan siap saji dan bebas dijual. Seharusnya kita sebagai manusia modern bisa lebih melek dan mengerti tentang gizi. Informasi mengenai gizi pun sangat banyak dan mudah didapat sekarang ini. Dengan mengetahui tentang gizi, setidaknya kita bisa hidup lebih sehat dan terhindar dari penyakit-penyakit kekinian (beberapa penyakit serius seperti diabetes, kanker, dan penyakit jantung) akibat makanan yang tidak sehat. Lantas seperti apa makanan sehat tersebut?
 
Makanan sehat jelasnya bukanlah makanan yang siap saji dan juga makanan yang mengandung zat-zat kimia buatan seperti yang dijelaskan pada paragraf sebelumnya. Berikut 15 makanan rekomendasi yang mengandung gizi tinggi: susu, telur, apel, lemon, bayam, almond, kacang hijau, brokoli, tomat, kedelai, minyak zaitun, ikan laut, biji rami, bawang putih, dan madu.
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Sudah tahukah kalian bahwa 4 sehat 5 sempurna kini berganti menjadi Pedoman Gizi Seimbang?

Setelah kita mengetahui apa itu konsep gizi dan makan-makanan yang mengandung gizi, kita juga perlu memahami tentang pedoman gizi seimbang. Sedikit berbeda dengan pedoman “4 sehat lima sempurna”, pola makan berdasarkan pada Pedoman Gizi Seimbang (PGS) tidak berlaku sama bagi setiap orang. Gizi seimbang akan berlaku berbeda pada masing-masing orang berdasarkan pada golongan usia, status kesehatan, dan juga aktivitas fisik.

 
Pola makan berdasarkan PGS menekankan pada jenis makanan, proporsi makanan yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan tubuh. Tak hanya itu, PGS juga menyarankan untuk memperhatikan aspek penting di luar makanan seperti kebersihan makanan, aktivitas fisik, dan juga pola hidup sehat lainnya.
Sumber: gizi.depkes.go.id
Pedoman Gizi Seimbang sebenarnya telah diimplementasikan sejak tahun 1955 menggantikan slogan “4 Sehat 5 Sempurna”. Namun baru tahun 1990 kita mempunyai Pedoman Umum Gizi Seimbag (PUGS). Meski, Pedoman Gizi seimbang telah dikenalkan jauh-jauh hari namun ada kendala dalam mensosialisasikannya. Pada tanggal 27 Januari 2014 disusunlah Pedoman Gizi Seimbang yang baru. 10 pesan PGS baru tersebut adalah :
1.    Syukuri dan nikmati aneka ragam makanan;
2.    Banyak makan sayuran dan cukup buah-buahan;
3.    Biasakan mengonsumsi lauk pauk yang mengandung protein tinggi;
4.    Biasakan mengonsumsi aneka ragam makanan pokok;
5.    Batasi konsumsi pangan manis, asin dan berlemak;
6.    Biasakan sarapan (makan pagi);
7.    Biasakan minum air putih yang cukup dan aman;
8.    Biasakan membaca label pada kemasan pangan;
9.    Cuci tangan pakai sabun dengan air bersih mengalir;
10. Lakukan aktivitas fisik yang cukup dan pertahankan berat badan normal
 
Jika kita menjaga asupan gizi kita melalui PGS yang telah dijelaskan di atas, berarti kita telah berusaha mencegah terjadinya masalah gizi buruk. Selain dari pada itu, diperlukan juga sistem kewaspadaan dini dengan indikator dan alat ukur yang sensitif. Dalam kaitan ini diperlukan sebuah sistem surveilance gizi buruk. Menurut WHO, survailans gizi merupakan kegiatan pengamatan keadaan gizi, dalam rangka untuk membuat keputusan yang berdampak pada perbaikan gizi penduduk dengan menyediakan informasi yang terus menerus tentang keadaan gizi penduduk, berdasarkan pengumpulan data langsung sesuai sumber yang ada, termasuk data hasil survei dan data yang sudah ada (Mason et al., 1984)
 
Sementara menurut Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan nomor: 1116/Menkes/SK/VI II/2003 tentang Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Surveilans Epidemiologi Kesehatan dan Penyakit salah satu kegiatannya adalah pelaksanaan SKD – KLB (Sistem Kewaspadaan Dini – Kejadian Luar Biasa). SKD KLB merupakan kewaspadaan terhadap penyakit berpotensi KLB serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya dengan menerapkan teknologi surveilans epidemiologi dan dimanfaatkan untuk meningkatkan sikap tanggap kesiapsiagaan, upaya pencegahan dan tindakan penanggulangan KLB yang cepat dan tepat (Depkes RI, 2004).
 
Berdasarkan pernyataan dua paragraf di atas, Departemen Kesehatan Indonesia juga sudah membuat aplikasi yang memudahkan para petugas untuk melaporkan masalah gizi buruk di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Serta, melalui aplikasi itu juga pemerintah pusat bisa dengan mudah mengawasi masalah gizi buruk setiap wilayah Indonesia, dan masyarakat umum pun juga bisa ikut mengetahui statistik masalah gizi buruk. Informasi tersebut bisa diakses melalui halaman website berikut http://gizi.depkes.go.id/sms-gateway/index.php .
Melalui Hari Gizi dan Makanan Nasional Indonesia, kita sebagai masyarakat umum harusnya bisa lebih sadar diri, dan ikut berperan serta dalam mensosialisasikan PGS tersebut. Minimal kita terapkan pada diri kita sendiri. Pada zaman modern sekarang ini sangat banyak hal-hal yang bisa menyebabkan pola hidup tidak sehat, mulai dari jenis makanan yang dikonsumsi, perilaku sehari-hari, maupun lingkungan yang tidak sehat.
Selain itu, ada baiknya perilaku sehat dan gizi seimbang perlu kita terapkan dari sekarang dan seterusnya. Hal tersebut bermanfaat agar bisa menunjang produktivitas kita, dan selalu berada pada kondisi sehat. Begitupun pada peringatan Hari Gizi dan Makanan Nasional Indonesia (25 Januari 2018) ini tidak hanya sebagai hari peringatan atau hanya dijalankan sehari saja, tapi juga bisa kita lakukan seterusnya.
 
2018 ini cobalah hentikan mengkonsumsi mecin. Cukup 2017 saja generasi mecin mewabah. 2018 ini bebaskan dirimu dari mecin. Jadi generasi cerdas!
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